Mahrokhsadat Hosseini — The Representation of Dialogism and Ethical Subjectivity through Poetry: An Irigarayian Reading of Iranian Women’s Poetry from the Constitutional Revolution to the Islamic Revolution

In my thesis, I study the question of the ethical subjectivity and dialogism in the work of Iranian female poets, whose poems, I believe, are enclosed with dialogical elements and ethical tones. I show how the concept of “the Dialogic subjectivity” acknowledges ethical questions in their poetry, e.g. the importance of situating oneself in the other’s stance, the challenging of the binary oppositions, the responsibility towards the other and the interpretation of relations. In this respect, the monologist understanding of subjectivity in Iranian women’s poetry is exchanged for the interaction between the subjects. Iranian feminine poets through their poetry, transgress several socio-cultural boundaries. The strategy of women in both spaces is the same: to become more visible, to raise their voice, resist and to create a new identity not far off from their real self.

In other words, I will show how poets try to promote ethical relations between human subjects in their feminine writing. A relation that proves to be intolerable in culture or tradition in which the subject is recognized as fixed and impartial. I display how the poets thus illustrate their poems with criticizing a tradition that does not recognize the presence of two different subjects and does not concern enough about ethics in their relations

This will be followed by an analysis if the sensible transcendental’s use of poetic discourse. In my search for the cultural meanings of Iranian contemporary feminine poetry, Irigaray’s transcendental theories of the duality of subjectivity, the masculine and feminine, and the culture of dialogic exchange between different subjects, will considerably rationalize my reading of Iranian women’s poetry explicitly, the metaphors and arguments that Irigaray produces to cultivate the feminine culture in her own poetry collection. I will then explore how Iranian women poets transform the poetic line to represent certain female experiences in their culture. This will be projected by Irigarayian modes of resistance. Irigaray’s resistant praxis will be introduced to oppose the masculine authority over language and reverse the negative image of women. After I demonstrate how the strategies used by the Iranian women poets in their poetry are comparable to that used by Irigaray. For the purpose of this paper six poems written after the Iranian revolution will be discussed: Gypsiesque (1), Gypsiesque (13), Stop Stoning, Postcinderella and A circle has Swallowed My Voice.